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中心主任卢秉恒院士:增材制造技术——现状与未来
  TIME:2021-04-14 14:29:55   浏览次数:3481次

卢秉恒,男,1945年生,中国工程院院士,西安交通大学机械制造系统工程国家重点实验室教授、博士研究生导师,快速制造国家工程研究中心主任、《中国机械工程》第五届编委会主任。研究方向为先进制造技术。

引言

ZENGCAIZHIZAO(additive manufacturing,AM)JISHU(YECHENGWEI3DDAYINJISHU)SHI20SHIJI80NIANDAIHOUQIFAZHANQILAIDEXINXINGZHIZAOJISHU。2013NIANMEIGUOMAIKENXIZIXUNGONGSIFABUDE“ZHANWANG2025”BAOGAOZHONG,JIANGZENGCAIZHIZAOJISHULIERUJUEDINGWEILAIJINGJIDESHIERDADIANFUJISHUZHIYI。MUQIAN,ZENGCAIZHIZAOCHENGXINGCAILIAOBAOHANLEJINSHU、FEIJINSHU、FUHECAILIAO、SHENGWUCAILIAOSHENZHISHISHENGMINGCAILIAO,CHENGXINGGONGYINENGLIANGYUANBAOKUOJIGUANG、DIANZISHU、TESHUBOZHANGGUANGYUAN、DIANHUYIJIYISHANGNENGLIANGYUANDEZUHE,CHENGXINGCHICUNCONGWEINAMIYUANQIJIANDAO10 mYISHANGDAXINGHANGKONGJIEGOUJIAN,WEIXIANDAIZHIZAOYEDEFAZHANYIJICHUANTONGZHIZAOYEDEZHUANXINGSHENGJITIGONGLEJUDAQIJI。ZENGCAIZHIZAOYIQIQIANGDADEGEXINGHUAZHIZAONENGLICHONGFENMANZUWEILAISHEHUIDAGUIMOGEXINGHUADINGZHIDEXUQIU,YIQIDUISHEJICHUANGXINDEQIANGLIZHICHENGDIANFUGAODUANZHUANGBEIDECHUANTONGSHEJIHEZHIZAOTUJING,XINGCHENGQIANSUOWEIYOUDEQUANXINJIEJUEFANGAN,SHIDALIANGDECHANPINGAINIANFASHENGGEMINGXINGBIANHUA,CHENGWEIZHICHENGWOGUOZHIZAOYECONGZHUANXINGDAOCHUANGXINQUDONGFAZHANMOSHIDEZHUANHUAN。

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1 、发展现状

2018年,全球增材制造产业产值达到 97.95 亿美元,较2017年增加24.59亿美元,同比增长33.5%;全球工业级增材制造装备的销量近20 000台,同比增长17.8%,其中金属增材制造装备销量近2 300台,同比增长29.9%,销售额达9.49亿美元,均价41.3万美元。以美国 GE公司为代表的航空应用企业开始采用增材制造技术批量化生产飞机发动机配件,尝试整机制造,并计划2021年启用一万台金属打印机,显示了增材制造技术的颠覆性意义。相应地,欧洲及日本等发达地区和国家也逐渐把增材制造技术纳入未来制造技术的发展规划中,比如欧盟规模最大的研发创新计划“地平线2020”,计划7年内(2014—2020)投资800亿欧元,其中选择10个增材制造项目,总投资2300万欧元;2019年,德国经济和能源部发布《国家工业战略2030》草案中,将增材制造列为十个工业领域 “关键工业部门”之一;2014年日本发布的《日本制造业白皮书》中,将机器人、下一代清洁能源汽车、再生医疗以及3D打印技术作为重点发展领域;2016年,日本将3D打印器官模型的费用纳入保险支付范围。

我国增材制造技术和产业发展速度快,规模稳步增长,技术体系和产业链条不断完善,产业格局初步形成,支撑体系逐渐健全,已逐步建立起较为完善的增材制造产业生态体系。根据中国增材制造产业联盟的统计,在2015—2017年三年间,我国增材制造产业规模年均增速超过30%,增速高于世界平均水平;我国本土企业实现快速成长,涌现出先临三维、铂力特、华曙高科等一批龙头企业,产业发展速度加快。

1.1 创造能力在不断提升

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1.2 产业规模快速增长

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1.3 应用领域持续拓展

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2、问题与挑战

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2.1 原始创新和变革性技术不足

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2.2 自主创新和标准的体系尚待完善

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2.3 增材制造形性主动控制难度大

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2.4 生物增材制造器官功能化困难

利来w66国际.comSHENGWUZHIZAOSHIWEILAIDEZHONGDIANFAZHANFANGXIANG。XIANYOUSHENGWUMOSHUITIXIFANGSHENGDUDI、KEDAYINXINGCHA、ZHONGLEISHAO,DAYINGONGYIWENDINGXINGJIXIAOLVDI、YUSHENGWUMOSHUIPIPEIXINGCHA,DAYINZUZHIJIEGOUCUNZAIYINGYANGWUZHISHUSONGJUXIAN,YINERWUFASHIXIANZHENZHENGGONGNENGHUA。WEILAIXUYAOGONGGUANDEGUANJIANHEXINJISHUBAOKUO:GAOJINGDUWEIGUANFANGSHENGSHEJIJIDANXIBAOWEINAKUACHIDUJIANMOYUZUZHUANG;DUOCHIDU、DUOZUZHIDESHENGWU3DDAYINGAOXIAODIAOKONGJISHU;XUEGUANZIZUZHUANGYUWANGLUOJIANLI;BAOZHENGDAYINDATIJIZUZHIDEWEICHI、CUNHUODESHENGWUFANYINGQIDEZHIZAO。SUIZHESHENGWUYIYONGCAILIAOCONG“FEIHUOTI”XIUFUDAO“HUOTI”XIUFUDEQUSHIZHUANBIAN,SHENGWUZHIZAOMIANLINDEZHANLVEXINGQIANZHANXINGZHONGDAKEXUEWENTIBAOKUO:RUHESHIXIANSHENGWUYIYONGCAILIAODEHUOXINGHUA、GONGNENGHUAGOUJIAN,SHENZHIGOUJIANGONGNENGXINGZUZHIQIGUAN,MANZUZUZHIQIGUANDUANQUE、GEXINGHUAXINYAOYANFADENGZHONGDAXUQIU。

3、方向发展

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3.1 加强基础科学问题研究

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(2)JIDUANTIAOJIANXIAZENGCAIZHIZAOXINJILI。SUIZHERENLEIYUELAIYUEPOQIEDETANSUOWAITAIKONGDEXUQIU,ZENGCAIZHIZAOJISHUBEIGENGDUODIYINGYONGYUTAIKONGTANSUOLINGYU,RENMENSHENZHIXIWANGZHIJIEZAIWAITAIKONGSHIXIANYUANWEIZENGCAIZHIZAO,ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGJILEISIJIDUANTIAOJIANXIADEZENGCAIZHIZAOJILIYIJIZENGCAIZHIZAOZHIJIANZAIZHEIZHONGFUYIHUANJINGXIADESHOUMINGHESHIXIAOJILIDEYANJIUJIANGSHIXIANGGUANYANJIURENYUANGUANZHUDEWENTI。

(3)TIDUCAILIAO、JIEGOUDEZENGCAIZHIZAOJILI。ZENGCAIZHIZAOSHIJIEGOUGONGNENGYITIHUASHIXIANDEZHIZAOJISHU,SHENZHIKEYISHIXIANZAITONGYIGOUJIANZHONGCAILIAOZUCHENGTIDULIANXUBIANHUA、DUOZHONGJIEGOUYOUJIJIEHE,SHIXIANZHEIYANGDESHEJIDUICAILIAOLIXUEHEJIEGOULIXUETICHULETIAOZHAN。

(4)ZUZHIQIGUANGEXINGHUAZHIZAOJIGONGNENGZAISHENGYUANLI。JUYOUSHENGMINGHUOLIDEHUOTIJIQIGUANGEXINGHUADAYINSHIZENGCAIZHIZAOZAISHENGWUYILIAOLINGYUZHONGZUIZHONGYAODEYINGYONGZHIYI,DANWULUNSHIZHIZAOGUOCHENGDESHENGMINGTIHUOLIDEBAOCHI,HAISHIZAISHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONGQIGUANGONGNENGZAICHUANGJILIDEYANJIU,DOUHAICHUYUCHUQIJIEDUAN,XUYAODUOGEXUEKEHELINGYUDEZHUANJIAXUEZHEGONGTONGNULI。

3.2 解决形性可控的智能化技术与装备

ZENGCAIZHIZAOGUOCHENGSHISHEJICAILIAO、JIEGOU、DUOZHONGWULICHANGHEHUAXUECHANGDEDUOYINSU、DUOCENGCIHEKUACHIDUOUHEDEJIDUANFUZAXITONG,ZAICITIAOJIANXIA,“WANQUANANZHAOSHEJIYAOQIUSHIXIANYIZHIDE、KEZHONGFUDECHANPINJINGDUHEXINGNENG”YIJI“SHIYIWANGBUNENGZHIZAODEQUANXINJIEGOUHEGONGNENGQIJIANBIANWEIKENENG”SHIZENGCAIZHIZAOFAZHANDEHEXINMUBIAO。JIEHEDASHUJUHERENGONGZHINENGJISHULAIYANJIUZHEIYIJIDUANFUZAXITONG,ZAIZENGCAIZHIZAODEDUOGONGNENGJICHENGYOUHUASHEJIYUANLIHEFANGFASHANGSHIXIANTUPO,FAZHANXINGXINGZHUDONGKEKONGDEZHINENGHUAZENGCAIZHIZAOJISHU,JIANGWEIZENGCAIZHIZAOJISHUDECAILIAO、GONGYI、JIEGOUSHEJI、CHANPINZHILIANGHEFUYIXIAONENGDEKUAYUESHITISHENGDIANDINGCHONGFENDEKEXUEHEJISHUJICHU。ZAICIJICHUSHANG,FAZHANJUYOUZICAIJI、ZIJIANMO、ZIZHENDUAN、ZIXUEXI、ZIJUECEDEZHINENGHUAZENGCAIZHIZAOZHUANGBEIYESHIWEILAIZENGCAIZHIZAOJISHUSHIXIANDAGUIMOYINGYONGDEZHONGYAOJICHU。TONGSHI,ZHONGSHIYUCAILIAO、RUANJIAN、RENGONGZHINENG、SHENGMINGYUYIXUEDEXUEKEJIAOCHAYANJIU,KAIZHANZHONGDAJISHUYUANSHICHUANGXINYANJIU,ZHUZHONGZAIHANGKONGHANGTIANHANGHAI、HEDIANDENGXINNENGYUAN、YILIAO、JIANZHU、WENHUACHUANGYIDENGLINGYUTUOZHANZENGCAIZHIZAOJISHUDEYINGYONG,SHIWOGUOZENGCAIZHIZAOJISHUKEWANGYINLINGSHIJIEDEGUANJIANZHISUOZAI。XINGXINGZHUDONGKEKONGDEZHINENGHUAZENGCAIZHIZAOJISHUHEZHUANGBEIDEFAZHANJIANGYOUWANGDAIDONGWEILAIZENGCAIZHIZAOJISHUDEQIANYANFAZHAN,CONGERTISHENGZENGCAIZHIZAOJISHUYINGYONGDEKEKAOXING,CHUANGZAOCHUDIANFUXINGXINJIEGOUHEXINGONGNENGQIJIAN,GENGHAODIZHICHENGGUOJIAJIGUOFANGZHIZAONENGLIDETISHENG。

3.3 突破制造过程跨尺度建模仿真及材料物性变化的时空调控技术

增材制造过程中材料的物性变化、形态演化以及组织转化极大地影响了成形的质量和性能,是增材制造实现从“结构”可控成形到“功能”可控形成的基础和关键核心。开展增材制造熔池强非平衡态凝固动力学理论研究、“制造过程的纳观-微观-宏观跨尺度建模仿真”技术研究,以及“微米-微秒介观时空尺度上材料物性变化的时空调控”研究,是提高我国增材制造领域竞争力、突破技术瓶颈的重要基础。

YIGONGNENGXUQIUWEIDAOXIANG,ZHUYAOYANJIUZHENDUIGAOFENZI、TAOCIDENGYOUJI/WUJIFEIJINSHUCAILIAO,SHENZHIXIBAO、YINZI、DANBAIDENGSHENGWUHUOXINGCAILIAODEZENGCAIZHIZAOGONGYI,JINXINGJIANJUCHENGXINGXINGNENGHEGONGNENGYAOQIUDEZHIZAOGUOCHENGNAGUAN-WEIGUAN-HONGGUANKUACHIDUJIANMOFANGZHEN,YIJIWEIMI-WEIMIAOJIEGUANSHIKONGCHIDUSHANGDEYUANWEIHETOUSHIGUANCEJISHUYUZHUANGZHIDEYANJIUYUKAIFA,JIANLIXIANGYINGDEDUOCHIDU、DUOCHANGJISUANMONIMOXING,ZAIGAOSHIKONGFENBIANLVXIA,YANJIUHEJIESHIFEIJINSHU、SHENGWUCAILIAO、XIBAODENGZAIJICHU、PENSHE、GUANGGUHUADENGDIANXINGZENGCAIZHIZAOGUOCHENGZHONGDEWUXINGBIANHUA、XINGTAIYANHUA、ZUZHIZHUANHUASHENZHIXIBAODEJIYINZHUANRUDENGXIJIEGUOCHENGJIQIYINGXIANGYINSU,ZHANGWOGONGYIXIANXIANGDEBENZHIYUANLIHECHENGXINGQUEXIANDEXINGCHENGJIZHI,WEIGAIJINHETIGAOXIANYOUGONGYISHUIPING、TISHENGZHIJIANZHILIANG、TUPOJISHUPINGJINGDIANDINGLILUNJICHU。ZAICIJICHUZHISHANG,YURENGONGZHINENG、DASHUJUHESHENDUXUEXIDENGJISHUJIEHE,TUPOXIANJINZHINENGCAILIAO、ROUXINGCAILIAO、XIANGYINGXINGCAILIAO、SHENGWUHUOXINGMOSHUIDEZENGCAIZHIZAOGUANJIANJISHUGONGYI,YANJIUDAYINGUOCHENGZHONGYIJIDAYINHOUCAILIAOWUXINGBIANHUAGUILVHEDIAOKONGGUILV。

3.4 注重发展未来颠覆性技术

TAIKONGDAYIN、SHENGWUDAYIN(SHENGWUZENGCAIZHIZAO)SHIZENGCAIZHIZAOLIANGGEJUYOUDIANFUXINGYINLINGXINGZHIDEZHONGDAYANJIUFANGXIANG,TAMENJIGUANXIDAO利来w66国际.com DEKONGTIANKEJIJISHENGMINGKEXUEQIANYAN,YOUZHIJIEGUANXIDAO利来w66国际.com DEGUOFANGANQUANJIJIANKANGSHENGHUO。

TAIKONGDAYINKEYIYIXIAOSHEBEIZHIZAODAZHUANGZHI,KEYIZAITAIKONGZHIZAOJUXINGTAIYANGNENGDIANZHAN,JIANLIYUEJIFASHEJIDI,NAIZHIFAZHANCHENGTAIKONGZHUANGBEIXINCAILIAO,SHIXIANBAZHIZAOBANDAOTIANKONGQUDEMEIHAOYUANWANG。TAIKONGDAYINSHI利来w66国际.com ZOUXIANGTAIKONGDEJIETI。

SHENGWUDAYINYIJINGZAIRENGONGXINFEIZHIZAOFANGMIANXIANSHILELIANGHAODEKAIDUAN,WOGUOYINGDALIFAZHANSHENGWUDAYINJISHU,SHIXIANXINYIDAIZHINENGXINGYILIAOQIXIE、SHENGWUJIXIEZHUANGZHIJITIWAISHENGMINGXITONGDENGDEYUANCHUANGXINGJISHUGONGYIDETUPO,CONGERZHANLINGJICHUYANJIUHECHANYEYINGYONGDEZHIGAODIAN,SHIXIANWOGUOXINXINGSHENGWUYILIAOQIXIELINGYUDEZIZHUCHUANGXINJIZHUANXINGSHENGJI。

4、发展思路

ZENGCAIZHIZAOSHIWOGUOSHITIJINGJIZHUANXINGSHENGJIDELIQI。WEIRAOGUOJIAZHIZAOYEQIANGGUOZHANLVE,ZHENDUIGUOMINJINGJIHEGUOFANGANQUANDEXUQIU,ZENGCAIZHIZAOYINGKAIZHANXINCAILIAO、XINJIEGOU、ZHINENGKONGZHI、ZUZHIHEXINGNENGDIAOKONG、JINGDUDIAOKONGDENGYANJIU,WEIZENGCAIZHIZAOZHUDONGXINGXINGDIAOKONGHEZHINENGHUAFAZHANDIANDINGJICHU。WOGUOZAIZENGCAIZHIZAOLINGYUZHENGCHUZAIGAOSUFAZHANQI,DANSHIYUOU、MEI、RIDENGFADAGUOJIAHEDIQUXIANGBI,WOGUOZENGCAIZHIZAOJISHUJISHEBEIHAICHUYULIESHI,SUOYITUIJINZENGCAIZHIZAOJISHUHEZHUANGBEIDESHENGJIHEGEXINXIANDEYOUWEIZHONGYAO,ZHEIYESHIWOGUOQIANGZHANZHANLVEZHIGAODIANDEZHONGYAOHUANJIE。WEICIYAOTUIDONGGAOKEKAO、GAOXINGNENG、GAOJINGMIZENGCAIZHIZAOGONGYIYUZHUANGBEIJIQIPEITAOJISHUDECHUANGXINXINGFAZHAN。ZAISHENGWUZENGCAIZHIZAOLINGYU,JUJIAOZUZHIQIGUANZHONGJIAN,ZHONGDIANWEIRAOXIBAO/ZUZHI/QIGUANXINPIANDAYINDENGJINXINGSHENGWUZENGCAIZHIZAOHEXINJISHU、GONGYIJIZHUANGBEIKAIFADEYANJIU,YIGONGKEZUZHIQIGUANZAIZAOJISHUPINGJING,JINKUAISHIXIANPIFUDENGRUANZUZHIXIUFUCHANPIN、XUEGUAN、RUANGU、BANGGUANGDENGJIANDANJIEGOUZUZHIQIGUANJIZHONGLIUDENGBINGLIMOXINGDEZHIZAO,ZAILINCHUANG、GEXINGHUAYAOWUSHAIXUANYUBINGLIYANJIU、ZUZHIZAISHENGYILIAOHEXIBAOZHILIAODENGLINGYUCHUBUYINGYONG,YIQITISHENGWOGUOSHENGWUZHIZAOHEXINJISHUSHUIPING,SHIZHISHIXIANGUOJI “BINGPAO”SHENZHI“LINGPAO”。

ZENGCAIZHIZAODEFAZHANJIANGZUNXUN“YINGYONGFAZHANWEIXIANDAO,JISHUCHUANGXINWEIQUDONG,CHANYEFAZHANWEIMUBIAO”DEYUANZE。YINGYONGFANGMIANXUJIEHEZENGCAIZHIZAOGONGYITEDIANJINXINGCHANPINSHEJIHEYOUHUA、CHUANGXINXINGYINGYONGDEKAIFA、GEXINGHUADINGZHISHENGCHANDENG,YITUOZHANZENGCAIZHIZAODEYINGYONGLINGYU;LIYONGZENGCAIZHIZAOYUNPINGTAIDENGXINMOSHITUOZHANZENGCAIZHIZAODEYINGYONGLUJING;JIEHEZENGCAIZHIZAOSHEBEIHEJISHUDEGAOJINGGAOXIAOFAZHANTEDIAN,YINGTIGAOZENGCAIZHIZAOPILIANGHUASHENGCHANNENGLI,TUOZHANLINGYUGUIMOHUAYINGYONG;JIEHEZENGCAIZHIZAOSHEBEIDEDUOYANGHUASHENGCHANTEDIAN,KETUIGUANGZENGCAIZHIZAOCHANPINZAISHEHUIGEXINGGEYEDEYINGYONG。TONGSHI,CHANYEKECHIXUFAZHANFANGMIAN,LIQIUJIANLIJIANQUANDEZENGCAIZHIZAOCHANYEBIAOZHUNTIXI,JIEHEYUNZHIZAO、DASHUJU、WULIANWANGDENGXINXINGJISHUJIQITAJIYUGONGYE4.0DEZHINENGJICHENGXITONG,CUJINZENGCAIZHIZAOSHEBEIHEJISHUDEQUANMIANGEXIN,PEIYUYIPIJUYOUGUOJIJINGZHENGLIDEJIANDUANKEJIHEZHIZAOQIYE,ZUIZHONGSHIXIANZENGCAIZHIZAOCHANYEDEKUAISUKECHIXUFAZHAN。SHENGWUZENGCAIZHIZAOXUYOUXIAOCUJINXIANJINJISHUZHUANHUAYINGYONGLUODI,GOUZHUZONGCHANZHIDAQIANYIYUANDESHENGWUZENGCAIZHIZAOCHUANGXINCHANYETIXI,PEIYUSHENGWUZENGCAIZHIZAOCHANYEGUOJIXINGLINGJUNQIYE,DAIDONGWOGUOZAISHENGYIXUE、SHENGWUCAILIAO、YIXUEGONGCHENGDENGDUOGEXIANGGUANCHANYEKUAISUFAZHAN。


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